Soft Robots: Implementation, Modeling, and Methods of control

Shahad AbdulAdheem Al-Ibadi, Loai Ali Talib Al Abeach, Mohammed Abd Ali Al-Ibadi


Soft robotics is a branch of robotics that focuses on technologies with physical features that are like those of live biological creatures. Additionally, they have many details that are hard, if not impossible, to realize with traditional robots which are composed of solid materials. This study concentrates on the current expansion of soft pneumatic actuators for modern soft robotics in recent years, with an emphasis on three areas: Implementation of soft robots, Modeling, and Methods of control systems. Therefore, numerous soft robotic designs and ways to make them suitable for medical, manufacturing, and agricultural applications have been presented. Moreover, a set of functional and technological aspects have been given to review models similar to human hand functionality and motions. To realize the advanced soft robotic hand manipulation function, robotic hands must be equipped with tactile sensing, that sensing is required to provide continuous data on the volume and direction of forces at all contact locations. The research examines achievements in material science, actuation, sensing techniques, and manufacturing technologies, as well as how to model and control a soft robot's motion, all of which are scientifically challenging and, more importantly, practical.


Soft robots; Materials and Construction; Sensors; Modeling; Control Techniques


D. Trivedi, C. D. Rahn, W. M. Kier, and I. D. Walker, “Soft robotics: Biological inspiration, state of the art, and future research,” Appl. bionics Biomech., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 99–117, 2008.

R. Mutlu, C. Tawk, G. Alici, and E. Sariyildiz, “A 3D printed monolithic soft gripper with adjustable stiffness,” in IECON 2017-43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2017, pp. 6235–6240.

J. Walker, T. Zidek, C. Harbel, “Soft robotics: a review of recent developments of pneumatic soft actuators,” Actuators, vol. 9, no. 1. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, p. 3, 2020, doi: 10.3390/act9010003.

“A dexterous, glove-based teleoperable low-power soft robotic arm for delicate deep-sea biological exploration,” Sci. Rep., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2018.

L. Wang and F. Iida, “Deformation in soft-matter robotics: A categorization and quantitative characterization,” IEEE Robot. Autom. Mag., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 125–139, 2015.

T. George Thuruthel, E. Falotico, M. Manti, A. Pratesi, M. Cianchetti, and C. Laschi, “Learning closed loop kinematic controllers for continuum manipulators in unstructured environments,” Soft Robot., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 285–296, 2017.

M. Cianchetti, C. Laschi, A. Menciassi, and P. Dario, “Biomedical applications of soft robotics,” Nat. Rev. Mater., vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 143–153, 2018.

Zion Tsz Ho Tse, Yue Chen, Sierra Hovet, Hongliang Ren, Kevin Cleary “Soft Robotics in Medical Applications,” J. Med. Robot. Res., vol. 3, no. 3–4, 2018, doi: 10.1142/S2424905X18410064.

D. Rus and M. T. Tolley, “Design, fabrication and control of soft robots,” Nature, vol. 521, no. 7553, pp. 467–475, 2015.

G. M. Whitesides, “Soft robotics,” Angew. Chemie Int. Ed., vol. 57, no. 16, pp. 4258–4273, 2018.

A. L. Gunderman, J. Collins, A. Myer, R. Threlfall, and Y. Chen, “Tendon-Driven Soft Robotic Gripper for Berry Harvesting,” arXiv Prepr. arXiv2103.04270, 2021.

A. L. Gunderman, J. Collins, A. Myer, R. Threlfall, and Y. Chen, “Tendon-Driven Soft Robotic Gripper for Berry Harvesting,” CoRR, pp. 1–12, 2021, [Online]. Available:

M. Khairudin, Z. Mohamed, A. R. Husain, and M. A. Ahmad, “Dynamic modelling and characterisation of a two-link flexible robot manipulator,” J. low Freq. noise, Vib. Act. Control, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 207–219, 2010.

I. Giorgio and D. Del Vescovo, “Non-linear lumped-parameter modeling of planar multi-link manipulators with highly flexible arms,” Robotics, vol. 7, no. 4, p. 60, 2018.

A. Mattioni, Y. Wu, and Y. Le Gorrec, “Infinite dimensional model of a double flexible-link manipulator: The Port-Hamiltonian approach,” Appl. Math. Model., vol. 83, pp. 59–75, 2020.

M. Sayahkarajy, Z. Mohamed, and A. A. Mohd Faudzi, “Review of modelling and control of flexible-link manipulators,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part I J. Syst. Control Eng., vol. 230, no. 8, pp. 861–873, 2016.

K. Lochan, B. K. Roy, and B. Subudhi, “A review on two-link flexible manipulators,” Annu. Rev. Control, vol. 42, pp. 346–367, 2016.

N. Kellaris, V. Gopaluni Venkata, G. M. Smith, S. K. Mitchell, and C. Keplinger, “Peano-HASEL actuators: Muscle-mimetic, electrohydraulic transducers that linearly contract on activation,” Sci. Robot., vol. 3, no. 14, p. eaar3276, 2018.

J. Amend, N. Cheng, S. Fakhouri, and B. Culley, “Soft robotics commercialization: Jamming grippers from research to product,” Soft Robot., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 213–222, 2016.

Bartlett, N. W., M. T. Tolley, J. T. B. Overvelde “A 3D-printed, functionally graded soft robot powered by combustion,” Science (80-. )., vol. 349, no. 6244, pp. 161–165, 2015.

C.-P. Chou and B. Hannaford, “Measurement and modeling of McKibben pneumatic artificial muscles,” IEEE Trans. Robot. Autom., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 90–102, 1996.

D. G. Caldwell, G. A. Medrano-Cerda, and M. Goodwin, “Control of Pneumatic Muscle Actuators,” IEEE Control Syst., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 40–48, 1995, doi: 10.1109/37.341863.

L. A. T. Al Abeach, S. Nefti-Meziani, and S. Davis, “Design of a Variable Stiffness Soft Dexterous Gripper,” Soft Robot., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 274–284, Sep. 2017, doi: 10.1089/soro.2016.0044.

L. Al Abeach, S. Nefti-Meziani, T. Theodoridis, and S. Davis, “A variable stiffness soft gripper using granular jamming and biologically inspired pneumatic muscles,” J. Bionic Eng., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 236–246, 2018.

L. Hao et al., “Design and control of a novel variable stiffness soft arm,” Adv. Robot., vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 605–622, 2018.

R. Kumar, S. Srivastava, and J. R. P. Gupta, “Online modeling and adaptive control of robotic manipulators using Gaussian radial basis function networks,” Neural Comput. Appl., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 223–239, 2018, doi: 10.1007/s00521-016-2695-8.

C. M. Best, M. T. Gillespie, P. Hyatt, L. Rupert, V. Sherrod, and M. D. Killpack, “A new soft robot control method: Using model predictive control for a pneumatically actuated humanoid,” IEEE Robot. Autom. Mag., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 75–84, 2016.

A. N. Kasruddin Nasir, M. A. Ahmad, and M. O. Tokhi, “Hybrid spiral-bacterial foraging algorithm for a fuzzy control design of a flexible manipulator,” J. Low Freq. Noise, Vib. Act. Control, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 340–358, 2022.

E. Kelasidi, G. Andrikopoulos, G. Nikolakopoulos, and S. Manesis, “A survey on pneumatic muscle actuators modeling,” in 2011 IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, 2011, pp. 1263–1269.

J. Yan, H. Zhang, P. Shi, X. Zhang, and J. Zhao, “Design and fabrication of a variable stiffness soft pneumatic humanoid finger actuator,” in 2018 IEEE International Conference on Information and Automation (ICIA), 2018, pp. 1174–1179.

Z. Wang and S. Hirai, “A soft gripper with adjustable stiffness and variable working length for handling food material,” 2018 IEEE Int. Conf. Real-Time Comput. Robot. RCAR 2018, pp. 25–29, 2019, doi: 10.1109/RCAR.2018.8621676.

G. Runge, M. Wiese, L. Günther, and A. Raatz, “A framework for the kinematic modeling of soft material robots combining finite element analysis and piecewise constant curvature kinematics,” in 2017 3rd International Conference on Control, Automation and Robotics (ICCAR), 2017, pp. 7–14.

R. Deimel and O. Brock, “A novel type of compliant and underactuated robotic hand for dexterous grasping,” Int. J. Rob. Res., vol. 35, no. 1–3, pp. 161–185, 2016.

Y. Sun, Y. S. Song, and J. Paik, “Characterization of silicone rubber based soft pneumatic actuators,” IEEE Int. Conf. Intell. Robot. Syst., pp. 4446–4453, 2013, doi: 10.1109/IROS.2013.6696995.

K. Takashima, K. Sugitani, N. Morimoto, S. Sakaguchi, T. Noritsugu, and T. Mukai, “Pneumatic artificial rubber muscle using shape-memory polymer sheet with embedded electrical heating wire,” Smart Mater. Struct., vol. 23, no. 12, p. 125005, 2014.

Y. Yang, Y. Chen, Y. Li, Z. Wang, and Y. Li, “Novel Variable-Stiffness Robotic Fingers with Built-In Position Feedback,” Soft Robot., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 338–352, 2017, doi: 10.1089/soro.2016.0060.

A. Miriyev, K. Stack, and H. Lipson, “Soft material for soft actuators,” Nat. Commun., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2017.

H. Yousef, M. Boukallel, and K. Althoefer, “Tactile sensing for dexterous in-hand manipulation in robotics—A review,” Sensors Actuators A Phys., vol. 167, no. 2, pp. 171–187, 2011.

Z. Tang, J. Lu, and Z. Wang, “The development of a new variable stiffness soft gripper,” no. 99, pp. 1–12, 2019, doi: 10.1177/1729881419879824.

M. Liu, L. Hao, and W. Zhang, “A novel design of shape-memory alloy-based soft robotic gripper with variable stiffness,” no. February, pp. 1–12, 2020, doi: 10.1177/1729881420907813.

K. Noda, Y. Hashimoto, Y. Tanaka, and I. Shimoyama, “MEMS on robot applications,” in TRANSDUCERS 2009-2009 International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference, 2009, pp. 2176–2181.

D. V. Dao, S. Sugiyama, and S. Hirai, “Analysis of sliding of a soft fingertip embedded with a novel micro force/moment sensor: Simulation, experiment, and application,” in 2009 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2009, pp. 889–894.

M. Sohgawa, T. Mima, H. Onishi, T. Kanashima, “Tactle array sensor with inclined chromium/silicon piezoresistive cantilevers embedded in elastomer,” in TRANSDUCERS 2009-2009 International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference, 2009, pp. 284–287.

I. S. Godage, D. T. Branson, E. Guglielmino, and D. G. Caldwell, “Pneumatic muscle actuated continuum arms: Modelling and experimental assessment,” Proc. - IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Autom., pp. 4980–4985, 2012, doi: 10.1109/ICRA.2012.6224949.

HAO Yufei, WANG Tianmiao, FANG Xi, “A variable stiffness soft robotic gripper with low-melting-point alloy,” in 2017 36th Chinese Control Conference (CCC), 2017, pp. 6781–6786.

O. Kanoun, A. Bouhamed, R. Ramalingame, J. R. Bautista-Quijano, D. Rajendran, and A. Al-Hamry, “Review on conductive polymer/CNTs nanocomposites based flexible and stretchable strain and pressure sensors,” Sensors, vol. 21, no. 2, p. 341, 2021.

K. Noda, K. Hoshino, K. Matsumoto, and I. Shimoyama, “A shear stress sensor for tactile sensing with the piezoresistive cantilever standing in elastic material,” Sensors Actuators A Phys., vol. 127, no. 2, pp. 295–301, 2006.

Y. Hasegawa, M. Shikida, D. Ogura, Y. Suzuki, and K. Sato, “Fabrication of a wearable fabric tactile sensor produced by artificial hollow fiber,” J. micromechanics microengineering, vol. 18, no. 8, p. 85014, 2008.

J.-S. Heo, J.-Y. Kim, and J.-J. Lee, “Tactile sensors using the distributed optical fiber sensors,” in 2008 3rd International Conference on Sensing Technology, 2008, pp. 486–490.

J. A. Dobrzynska and M. A. M. Gijs, “Capacitive flexible force sensor,” Procedia Eng., vol. 5, pp. 404–407, 2010.

E. L. White, J. C. Case, and R. K. Kramer, “Multi-mode strain and curvature sensors for soft robotic applications,” Sensors Actuators A Phys., vol. 253, pp. 188–197, 2017.

W.-C. Choi, “Polymer micromachined flexible tactile sensor for three-axial loads detection,” Trans. Electr. Electron. Mater., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 130–133, 2010.

Y. Zhang, Y. Mukaibo, and T. Maeno, “A multi-purpose tactile sensor inspired by human finger for texture and tissue stiffness detection,” in 2006 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics, 2006, pp. 159–164.

L. Beccai et al., “Development and experimental analysis of a soft compliant tactile microsensor for anthropomorphic artificial hand,” IEEE/Asme Trans. Mechatronics, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 158–168, 2008.

H.-K. Lee, J. Chung, S.-I. Chang, and E. Yoon, “Normal and shear force measurement using a flexible polymer tactile sensor with embedded multiple capacitors,” J. Microelectromechanical Syst., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 934–942, 2008.

J. Wang, H. Sato, C. Xu, and M. Taya, “Bioinspired design of tactile sensors based on Flemion,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 105, no. 8, p. 83515, 2009.

S.-L. Yu, D.-R. Chang, L.-C. Tsao, W.-P. Shih, and P.-Z. Chang, “Porous nylon with electro-active dopants as flexible sensors and actuators,” in 2008 IEEE 21st International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, 2008, pp. 908–911.

Y.-J. Yang a, M.-Y. Cheng a, W.-Y. Chang “An integrated flexible temperature and tactile sensing array using PI-copper films,” Sensors Actuators A Phys., vol. 143, no. 1, pp. 143–153, 2008.

N. Wettels, V. J. Santos, R. S. Johansson, and G. E. Loeb, “Biomimetic tactile sensor array,” Adv. Robot., vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 829–849, 2008.

Y. Xu, F. Jiang, S. Newbern, A. Huang, C.-M. Ho, and Y.-C. Tai, “Flexible shear-stress sensor skin and its application to unmanned aerial vehicles,” Sensors Actuators A Phys., vol. 105, no. 3, pp. 321–329, 2003.

Y. Yang and Y. Chen, “Innovative Design of Embedded Pressure and Position Sensors for Soft Actuators,” IEEE Robot. Autom. Lett., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 656–663, 2018, doi: 10.1109/LRA.2017.2779542.

J. Meng, L. Gerez, J. Chapman, and M. Liarokapis, “A Tendon-Driven, Preloaded, Pneumatically Actuated, Soft Robotic Gripper with a Telescopic Palm,” 2020 3rd IEEE International Conference on Soft Robotics, RoboSoft 2020. pp. 476–481, 2020, doi: 10.1109/RoboSoft48309.2020.9115986.

Z. Zhang, L. Zheng, J. Yu, Y. Li, and Z. Yu, “Three recurrent neural networks and three numerical methods for solving a repetitive motion planning scheme of redundant robot manipulators,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 1423–1434, 2017.

M. A. Robertson, H. Sadeghi, J. M. Florez, and J. Paik, “Soft pneumatic actuator fascicles for high force and reliability,” Soft Robot., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 23–32, 2017.

Yigit Meng, Yong-Lae Park1, Ernesto Martinez-Villalpando “Soft wearable motion sensing suit for lower limb biomechanics measurements,” in 2013 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2013, pp. 5309–5316.

B. Tondu and P. Lopez, “Modeling and control of McKibben artificial muscle robot actuators,” IEEE Control Syst. Mag., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 15–38, 2000.

A. Pujana-Arrese, K. Bastegieta, A. Mendizabal, R. Prestamero, and J. Landaluze, “Position/Force Control of a 1-DoF Set-up Powered by Pneumatic Muscles.,” in ICINCO-RA, 2009, pp. 228–237.

A. Pujana-Arrese, J. Arenas, I. Retolaza, A. Martinez-Esnaola, and J. Landaluze, “Modelling in Modelica of a pneumatic muscle: application to model an experimental set-up,” in 21st European conference on modelling and simulation, ECMS, 2007, pp. 4–6.

Z. Zhang, X. Wang, H. Liu, S. Wang, and B. Liang, “Nonlinear dynamic and effect parameters analysis for extension pneumatic muscle,” in 2018 Chinese Control And Decision Conference (CCDC), 2018, pp. 4437–4442.

K. C. Wickramatunge and T. Leephakpreeda, “Study on mechanical behaviors of pneumatic artificial muscle,” Int. J. Eng. Sci., vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 188–198, 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.ijengsci.2009.08.001.

M. Luo, M. Agheli, and C. D. Onal, “Theoretical modeling and experimental analysis of a pressure-operated soft robotic snake,” Soft Robot., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 136–146, 2014.

Zhang, Jia-Fan, et al. "Modeling and control of a curved pneumatic muscle actuator for wearable elbow exoskeleton." Mechatronics 18.8 (2008): 448-457.‏

C.-J. Lin, C.-R. Lin, S.-K. Yu, and C.-T. Chen, “Hysteresis modeling and tracking control for a dual pneumatic artificial muscle system using Prandtl–Ishlinskii model,” Mechatronics, vol. 28, pp. 35–45, 2015.

Shahad A. Al-Ibadi, Loai A. T. Al-Abeach, and Mohammed A. Al-Ibadi, “Experimental Modeling of Pneumatic Muscle Actuator,” Iraqi International Conference on Communication and Information Technologies (IICCIT). IEEE, 2022.

H. Li, J. Yao, P. Zhou, X. Chen, Y. Xu, and Y. Zhao, “High-Load Soft Grippers Based on Bionic Winding Effect,” Soft Robot., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 276–288, 2019, doi: 10.1089/soro.2018.0024.

F. Renda, F. Giorgio-Serchi, F. Boyer, C. Laschi, J. Dias, and L. Seneviratne, “A unified multi-soft-body dynamic model for underwater soft robots,” Int. J. Rob. Res., vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 648–666, 2018.

Wang, Ziwen, et al. "Hybrid adaptive control strategy for continuum surgical robot under external load." IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters 6.2 (2021): 1407-1414.‏

P. Hyatt, C. C. Johnson, and M. D. Killpack, “Model reference predictive adaptive control for large-scale soft robots,” Front. Robot. AI, p. 132, 2020.

J. L. Serres, D. B. Reynolds, C. A. Phillips, D. B. Rogers, and D. W. Repperger, “Characterisation of a pneumatic muscle test station with two dynamic plants in cascade,” Comput. Methods Biomech. Biomed. Engin., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 11–18, 2010.

K. Elgeneidy, N. Lohse, and M. Jackson, “Bending angle prediction and control of soft pneumatic actuators with embedded flex sensors–a data-driven approach,” Mechatronics, vol. 50, pp. 234–247, 2018.

L. Schiller, A. Seibel, and J. Schlattmann, “A gait pattern generator for closed-loop position control of a soft walking robot,” Front. Robot. AI, vol. 7, p. 87, 2020.

Z. Zhang, J. Dequidt, J. Back, H. Liu, and C. Duriez, “Motion control of cable-driven continuum catheter robot through contacts,” IEEE Robot. Autom. Lett., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 1852–1859, 2019.

R. K. Katzschmann et al., “Dynamically closed-loop controlled soft robotic arm using a reduced order finite element model with state observer,” in 2019 2nd IEEE international conference on soft robotics (RoboSoft), 2019, pp. 717–724.

J. Pinskier and D. Howard, “From bioinspiration to computer generation: Developments in autonomous soft robot design,” Adv. Intell. Syst., vol. 4, no. 1, p. 2100086, 2022.

V. Sanchez, C. J. Walsh, and R. J. Wood, “Textile technology for soft robotic and autonomous garments,” Adv. Funct. Mater., vol. 31, no. 6, p. 2008278, 2021.

P. Rothemund et al., “A soft, bistable valve for autonomous control of soft actuators,” Sci. Robot., vol. 3, no. 16, p. eaar7986, 2018.

C. D. Onal, X. Chen, G. M. Whitesides, and D. Rus, “Soft mobile robots with on-board chemical pressure generation,” in Robotics Research, Springer, 2017, pp. 525–540.

C. A. Monje Micharet and C. Laschi, “Advances in Modeling and Control of Soft Robots,” Front. Robot. AI, vol. 8, p. 147, 2021.

F. Angelini, C. Della Santina, M. Garabini, M. Bianchi, and A. Bicchi, “Control architecture for human-like motion with applications to articulated soft robots,” Front. Robot. AI, p. 117, 2020.

R. S. Diteesawat, A. Fishman, T. Helps, M. Taghavi, and J. Rossiter, “Closed-loop control of electro-ribbon actuators,” Front. Robot. AI, p. 144, 2020.

X. Chen, D. Duanmu, and Z. Wang, “Model-Based control and external load estimation of an extensible soft robotic arm,” Front. Robot. AI, vol. 7, p. 215, 2021.

“First-order dynamic modeling and control of soft robots,” Front. Robot. AI, vol. 7, p. 95, 2020.

S. D. Gollob, C. Park, B. H. B. Koo, and E. T. Roche, “A modular geometrical framework for modelling the force-contraction profile of vacuum-powered soft actuators,” Front. Robot. AI, p. 15, 2021.

K. K. Ahn and T. U. D. C. Thanh, “Nonlinear PID control to improve the control performance of the pneumatic artificial muscle manipulator using neural network,” J. Mech. Sci. Technol., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 106–115, 2005.

C. Della Santina et al., “Controlling soft robots: balancing feedback and feedforward elements,” IEEE Robot. Autom. Mag., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 75–83, 2017.

S. Ibrahim, J. C. Krause, A. Olbrich, and A. Raatz, “Modeling and Reconstruction of State Variables for Low-Level Control of Soft Pneumatic Actuators,” Front. Robot. AI, vol. 8, p. 557830, 2021, doi: 10.3389/frobt.2021.557830.

L. Rupert, T. Duggan, and M. D. Killpack, “Improved Continuum Joint Configuration Estimation Using a Linear Combination of Length Measurements and Optimization of Sensor Placement,” Front. Robot. AI, vol. 8, 2021.

T. G. Thuruthel, E. Falotico, F. Renda, and C. Laschi, “Model-based reinforcement learning for closed-loop dynamic control of soft robotic manipulators,” IEEE Trans. Robot., vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 124–134, 2018.

Tingwu Wang, Xuchan Bao, Ignasi Clavera “Benchmarking model-based reinforcement learning,” arXiv Prepr. arXiv1907.02057, 2019.

J. Huang, Y. Cao, C. Xiong, and H.-T. Zhang, “An echo state Gaussian process-based nonlinear model predictive control for pneumatic muscle actuators,” IEEE Trans. Autom. Sci. Eng., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 1071–1084, 2018.

C.-J. Chiang and Y.-C. Chen, “Neural network fuzzy sliding mode control of pneumatic muscle actuators,” Eng. Appl. Artif. Intell., vol. 65, pp. 68–86, 2017.

B. Gorissen, D. Melancon, N. Vasios, M. Torbati, and K. Bertoldi, “Inflatable soft jumper inspired by shell snapping,” Sci. Robot., vol. 5, no. 42, p. eabb1967, 2020.

G. Gu, J. Zou, R. Zhao, X. Zhao, and X. Zhu, “Soft wall-climbing robots,” Sci. Robot., vol. 3, no. 25, p. eaat2874, 2018.

D. Sinha and R. Roy, “Reviewing cyber-physical system as a part of smart factory in industry 4.0,” IEEE Eng. Manag. Rev., vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 103–117, 2020.

P. Wu, W. Jiangbei, and F. Yanqiong, “The structure, design, and closed-loop motion control of a differential drive soft robot,” Soft Robot., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 71–80, 2018.

J. Shan, H.-T. Liu, and D. Sun, “Modified input shaping for a rotating single-link flexible manipulator,” J. Sound Vib., vol. 285, no. 1–2, pp. 187–207, 2005.

M. A. Ahmad, H. Ishak, A. N. K. Nasir, and N. Abd Ghani, “Data-based PID control of flexible joint robot using adaptive safe experimentation dynamics algorithm,” Bull. Electr. Eng. Informatics, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 79–85, 2021.

O. A. Garcia-Perez, G. Silva-Navarro, and J. F. Peza-Solis, “Flexible-link robots with combined trajectory tracking and vibration control,” Appl. Math. Model., vol. 70, pp. 285–298, 2019.

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Informatics (IJEEI)
ISSN 2089-3272

Creative Commons Licence

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

web analytics
View IJEEI Stats